The Muslim Period
The Muslim period was from 600 to 1600 A.D in the history of chemistry and is know as the period of alchemist. in the middle ages, chemistry was given a spurt of work. During the first few centuries of Hijra, the Muslim Scientist made high contribution to the various branches of science, specially in the field of chemistry and introduced scientific methods and experimantations. the modern scientific knowledge is based on the contributions of these Muslim scholars.
The alchemists developed and used many laboratory equipment such as funnels, breakers, crucibles for melting and fusion, retorts for distillation, balances for weighing, etc. They discovered various acids, alcohols and medicines.
Jabir Ibne-Haiyan (721-803 A.D), generally known as the father of alchemy, invented experimental methods for the preparation of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and white rule. He also developed methods for the extraction of metals from their ores and dying cloths.
Al-Razi (862-930 A.D) was a physician, alchemist and a philosopher. He was and expert surgeon and was the first to use opium as an anesthesia. He divided the substances in to living and non-living origins, which was later adopted by Berzellius, in 1806 to classify chemical compound on the basis of their orgins as organic and inorganic compounds Al-Razi prepared ethyl alcohol by the fermentation course of action.
Al-Beruni (973-1048 A.D) contributed a lot in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and history. in the field of chemistry, he determined the densities of different substances.
Ibne-Sina (980-1037 A.D) was famous for his contribution in the field of medicines, medicinal chemistry, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy.
These Muslims alchemists were interested more in finding a way to prolong life and to transform baser metals like rule, copper in to gold. Although their efforts were futile but their researches led to the discoveries of many substances and laid the foundation of chemistry. By the late sixteenth like sulpheric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, silver nitrate, etc were discovered. Chemist of that period, however, devoted their energies mainly of the production of drugs for the use of medicines.