Successful Techniques and Point Losing KPI’s in Final Competitions of …
Karate is one of the most popular martial arts, and it is distinguished into two competitive disciplines: Kata and Kumite. Kata is a fight against fictitious opponents, while Kumite is a real match against one opponent where the two competitors, under strict rules, are free to move, kick and punch in defensive and offensive ways. (1)
Technique is the ‘proper pattern of movements to do a specific sport skill’. With regard to effectiveness, it is defined as the strength to produce an effect (decided, decisive, or desired effect). In other words, a movement is effective if the execution achieves the objective(s) of the movement (e.g. accuracy, scoring, strength, projecting the body as far or as high as possible, etc.). (2)
In a non-contact karate fight, punches and kicks must be controlled (without injury to the opponent) or stopped before contact with the opponent’s body. (3) In the context of kumite, punching (zuki) and kicking (geri) techniques are allowed at the head (jodan) and abdomen (chudan). Kumite competition is divided into team matches and individual matches. Kumite’s scoring system contains: 3 points (Ippon) are awarded for leg kicks to the head and the techniques of cleaning and throwing, which consequence in a final fall of the opponent or a final punch, 2 points (Waza-Ari) are adjudicated for kicks to the trunk and punches to the back, including the back of the head and neck. Finally, 1 point (Yuko) is awarded for single arm punches to the head and body. (4)
To unprotected to injury prevention, new rules are stricter about extremely behavior for competitors, including excessive force used in dealing blows to permitted areas, to the banned areas (throat, arms, legs, groin, joints, and instep), blows to the confront with open hand techniques, and dangerous or extremely throwing techniques. Any illegal behavior results in a warning or penalty. (5)
current match examination systems, whether based on traditional video coding of matches or player tracking technology, provide a high source of quantitative data on how well skills are performed during competition. The collection of such data enables meaningful performance indicators for a single player or the team as a whole to be identified. The performance indicators may relate to biomechanical, technical, tactical or behavioral measures of performance. (6) (For example in Kumite when missing point(s): wrong footwork, wrong weight-shifting, error of distancing, etc.)
Hughes and Bartlett have suggested that KPI’s are “a selection, or combination, of action variables that aims to define some or all aspects of a performance”. (7) knowing and having a good and functional understanding of successful techniques and KPIs in high level karatekas will definitely assist high performance coaches, technical experts, scientific researchers and the athletes to enhance their planning and training programs which can rule to an enhanced performance. consequently, the aims of the current study were to divulge the successful techniques and point losing KPIs in final competition of Karate World Championships -Austria 2016 in order to help coaches and top level athletes in this newly Olympic included combat sport.
All the ten final competitions of male individual (Individual male weight categories: >84 kg,